Table 1

Comparison of disease outcomes and risk factor levels among populations of African descent in the UK and the Netherlands

Men

Women


African Caribbeans

Sub-Saharan Africans

African Surinamese

African Caribbeans

Sub-Saharan Africans

African Surinamese


Disease outcomes


Stroke [2-5]

+

+

+

+

+

+


Coronary heart disease [2-5]

-

-

-

-

-

-


Type II diabetes [26,27,34,71]

+

+

+

+

+

+



Chemical measurement risk factors


High total cholesterol* [26,89,71]

-

-

-

-

-

-


Low HDL cholesterol [26,89,71]

-

-

-

-

=

-


ApoA-1 [89]

=

=


ApoB [89]

-

-



Physical measurement risk factors


Hypertension [23,24]

+

+

+

+

+

+


Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) [23,24,94,97]

=

-

=

+

+

+


Abdominal obesity [23,24,94]

-

-

-

+

+

+



Self-reported risk factors


Current smoking [93,94]

=

-

+

=

-

-


Alcohol consumption [93,94]

-

-

-

-

-

-


Physical inactivity (non-adherence to recommendations) [66,93]

=

+

+

-

=

+


Consumption of < 5 portions of fruit and vegetables* [93,110]

-

-

- **

-

-

- **


Psychosocial stress [26,122-125]

inconsistent

inconsistent

inconsistent

inconsistent


- Lower risk than White European population

+ higher risk than White European population

= comparable risk to White European population

* applied only to the non-UK born

** the Dutch group were based on overall diet quality

Agyemang et al. Globalization and Health 2009 5:7   doi:10.1186/1744-8603-5-7

Open Data